Installing Apache Kudu

You can deploy Kudu on a cluster using packages or you can build Kudu from source. To run Kudu without installing anything, use the Kudu Quickstart VM.

Kudu is currently easier to install and manage with Cloudera Manager, version 5.4.7 or newer. If you use Cloudera Manager, see also Cloudera’s Kudu documentation.
Upgrading Kudu

To upgrade Kudu from a previous version, see Upgrade from a Previous Version of Kudu.

Prerequisites and Requirements

Hardware
  • One or more hosts to run Kudu masters. It is recommended to have either one master (no fault tolerance), three masters (can tolerate one failure), or five masters (two failures).

  • One or more hosts to run Kudu tablet servers. When using replication, a minimum of three tablet servers is necessary.

Operating System Requirements
Linux
  • RHEL 6, RHEL 7, CentOS 6, CentOS 7, Ubuntu 14.04 (Trusty), Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial), Debian 8 (Jessie), or SLES 12.

  • A kernel and filesystem that support hole punching. Hole punching is the use of the fallocate(2) system call with the FALLOC_FL_PUNCH_HOLE option set. See troubleshooting hole punching for more information.

  • ntp.

  • xfs or ext4 formatted drives.

macOS
  • OS X 10.10 Yosemite, OS X 10.11 El Capitan, or macOS Sierra.

  • Prebuilt macOS packages are not provided.

Windows
  • Microsoft Windows is unsupported.

Storage
  • If solid state storage is available, storing Kudu WALs on such high-performance media may significantly improve latency when Kudu is configured for its highest durability levels.

Management
  • If you use Cloudera Manager and CDH, Cloudera Manager 5.4.3 or newer is required. Cloudera Manager 5.4.7 and newer provide better monitoring and administration options.

Install Using Packages

You can install Kudu using packages managed by the operating system.

Table 1. Kudu Package Locations
OS Repository Individual Packages

RHEL or CentOS

RHEL 6 or CentOS 6, RHEL 7 or CentOS 7

RHEL 6 or CentOS 6, RHEL 7 or CentOS 7

SLES

SLES 12

SLES 12

Ubuntu

Trusty, Xenial

Trusty, Xenial

Debian

Jessie

Jessie

Install on RHEL or CentOS Hosts

  1. Download and configure the Kudu repositories for your operating system, or manually download individual RPMs, using the appropriate link from Kudu Package Locations.

  2. If using a Yum repository, use the following commands to install Kudu packages on each host, after saving the cloudera-kudu.repo file to /etc/yum.repos.d/.

    sudo yum install kudu                         # Base Kudu files
    sudo yum install kudu-master                  # Kudu master init.d service script and default configuration
    sudo yum install kudu-tserver                 # Kudu tablet server init.d service script and default configuration
    sudo yum install kudu-client0                 # Kudu C++ client shared library
    sudo yum install kudu-client-devel            # Kudu C++ client SDK
  3. To manually install the Kudu RPMs, first download them, then use the command sudo rpm -ivh <RPM to install> to install them.

  4. Note: the kudu-master and kudu-tserver packages are only necessary on hosts where there is a master or tserver respectively (and completely unnecessary if using Cloudera Manager). Each provides configuration files and an init.d script to manage the corresponding Kudu process. Once installed, the Kudu process is started and stopped automatically when the host starts up and shuts down.

Install on SLES Hosts

  1. Download and configure the Kudu repositories for your operating system, or manually download individual RPMs, using the appropriate link from Kudu Package Locations.

  2. If using a Zypper repository, use the following commands to install Kudu packages on each host, after saving the cloudera-kudu.repo file to /etc/zypp/repos.d.

    sudo zypper install kudu                      # Base Kudu files
    sudo zypper install kudu-master               # Kudu master init.d service script and default configuration
    sudo zypper install kudu-tserver              # Kudu tablet server init.d service script and default configuration
    sudo zypper install kudu-client0              # Kudu C++ client shared library
    sudo zypper install kudu-client-devel         # Kudu C++ client SDK
  3. To manually install the Kudu RPMs, first download them, then use the command sudo rpm -ivh <RPM to install> to install them.

  4. Note: the kudu-master and kudu-tserver packages are only necessary on hosts where there is a master or tserver respectively (and completely unnecessary if using Cloudera Manager). Each provides configuration files and an init.d script to manage the corresponding Kudu process. Once installed, the Kudu process is started and stopped automatically when the host starts up and shuts down.

Install on Ubuntu or Debian Hosts

  1. If using an Ubuntu or Debian repository, use the following commands to install Kudu packages on each host after saving the cloudera.list file to /etc/apt/sources.list.d/.

    sudo apt-get install kudu                     # Base Kudu files
    sudo apt-get install kudu-master              # Service scripts for managing kudu-master
    sudo apt-get install kudu-tserver             # Service scripts for managing kudu-tserver
    sudo apt-get install libkuduclient0           # Kudu C++ client shared library
    sudo apt-get install libkuduclient-dev        # Kudu C++ client SDK
  2. To manually install the Kudu RPMs, first download them, then use the command sudo rpm -ivh <RPM to install> to install them.

  3. Note: the kudu-master and kudu-tserver packages are only necessary on hosts where there is a master or tserver respectively (and completely unnecessary if using Cloudera Manager). Each provides configuration files and an init.d script to manage the corresponding Kudu process. Once installed, the Kudu process is started and stopped automatically when the host starts up and shuts down.

Verify the Installation

  1. Verify that services are running using one of the following methods:

    • Examine the output of the ps command on servers to verify one or both of kudu-master or kudu-tserver processes is running.

    • Access the Master or Tablet Server web UI by opening http://<_host_name_>:8051/ for masters or http://<_host_name_>:8050/ for tablet servers.

  2. If Kudu isn’t running, have a look at the log files in '/var/log/kudu', and if there’s a file ending with '.FATAL' then it means Kudu wasn’t able to start.

    • If the error is 'Error during hole punch test', it might be a problem with your OS.

    • If the error is 'Couldn’t get the current time', it’s a problem with ntp.

    • If it’s something else that doesn’t seem obvious or if you’ve tried the above solutions without luck, you can ask for help on the user mailing list.

Required Configuration

Additional configuration steps are required on each host before you can start Kudu services.

  1. The packages create a kudu-conf entry in the operating system’s alternatives database, and they ship the built-in conf.dist alternative. To adjust your configuration, you can either edit the files in /etc/kudu/conf/ directly, or create a new alternative using the operating system utilities, make sure it is the link pointed to by /etc/kudu/conf/, and create custom configuration files there. Some parts of the configuration are configured in /etc/default/kudu-master and /etc/default/kudu-tserver files as well. You should include or duplicate these configuration options if you create custom configuration files.

    Review the configuration, including the default WAL and data directory locations, and adjust them according to your requirements.

  1. Start Kudu services using the following commands:

    $ sudo service kudu-master start
    $ sudo service kudu-tserver start
  2. To stop Kudu services, use the following commands:

    $ sudo service kudu-master stop
    $ sudo service kudu-tserver stop
  3. Configure the Kudu services to start automatically when the server starts, by adding them to the default runlevel.

    $ sudo chkconfig kudu-master on                # RHEL / CentOS / SLES
    $ sudo chkconfig kudu-tserver on               # RHEL / CentOS / SLES
    
    $ sudo update-rc.d kudu-master defaults        # Debian / Ubuntu
    $ sudo update-rc.d kudu-tserver defaults       # Debian / Ubuntu
  4. For additional configuration of Kudu services, see Configuring Kudu.

Build From Source

If installing Kudu using parcels or packages does not provide the flexibility you need, you can build Kudu from source. You can build from source on any supported operating system.

Known Build Issues
  • It is not possible to build Kudu on Microsoft Windows.

  • A C+11 capable compiler (GCC 4.8) is required.

RHEL or CentOS

RHEL or CentOS 6.6 or later is required to build Kudu from source. To build on a version older than 7.0, the Red Hat Developer Toolset must be installed (in order to have access to a C++11 capable compiler).

  1. Install the prerequisite libraries, if they are not installed.

    $ sudo yum install autoconf automake cyrus-sasl-devel cyrus-sasl-gssapi \
      cyrus-sasl-plain gcc gcc-c++ gdb git krb5-server krb5-workstation libtool \
      make openssl-devel patch pkgconfig redhat-lsb-core rsync unzip vim-common which
  2. If building on RHEL or CentOS older than 7.0, install the Red Hat Developer Toolset.

    $ DTLS_RPM=rhscl-devtoolset-3-epel-6-x86_64-1-2.noarch.rpm
    $ DTLS_RPM_URL=https://www.softwarecollections.org/repos/rhscl/devtoolset-3/epel-6-x86_64/noarch/${DTLS_RPM}
    $ wget ${DTLS_RPM_URL} -O ${DTLS_RPM}
    $ sudo yum install -y scl-utils ${DTLS_RPM}
    $ sudo yum install -y devtoolset-3-toolchain
  3. Optional: Install some additional packages, including ruby, if you plan to build documentation.

    $ sudo yum install doxygen gem graphviz ruby-devel zlib-devel
    If building on RHEL or CentOS older than 7.0, the gem package may need to be replaced with rubygems
  4. Clone the Git repository and change to the new kudu directory.

    $ git clone https://github.com/apache/kudu
    $ cd kudu
  5. Build any missing third-party requirements using the build-if-necessary.sh script. Not using the devtoolset will result in Host compiler appears to require libatomic, but cannot find it.

    $ build-support/enable_devtoolset.sh thirdparty/build-if-necessary.sh
  6. Build Kudu, using the utilities installed in the previous step. Choose a build directory for the intermediate output, which can be anywhere in your filesystem except for the kudu directory itself. Notice that the devtoolset must still be specified, else you’ll get cc1plus: error: unrecognized command line option "-std=c++11".

    mkdir -p build/release
    cd build/release
    ../../build-support/enable_devtoolset.sh \
      ../../thirdparty/installed/common/bin/cmake \
      -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=release \
      ../..
    make -j4
  7. Optional: Install Kudu binaries, libraries, and headers. If you do not specify an installation directory through the DESTDIR environment variable, /usr/local/ is the default.

    sudo make DESTDIR=/opt/kudu install
  8. Optional: Build the documentation. NOTE: This command builds local documentation that is not appropriate for uploading to the Kudu website.

    $ make docs
Example 1. RHEL / CentOS Build Script

This script provides an overview of the procedure to build Kudu on a newly-installed RHEL or CentOS host, and can be used as the basis for an automated deployment scenario. It skips the steps marked Optional above.

#!/bin/bash

sudo yum -y install autoconf automake cyrus-sasl-devel cyrus-sasl-gssapi \
  cyrus-sasl-plain gcc gcc-c++ gdb git krb5-server krb5-workstation libtool \
  make openssl-devel patch pkgconfig redhat-lsb-core rsync unzip vim-common which
DTLS_RPM=rhscl-devtoolset-3-epel-6-x86_64-1-2.noarch.rpm
DTLS_RPM_URL=https://www.softwarecollections.org/repos/rhscl/devtoolset-3/epel-6-x86_64/noarch/${DTLS_RPM}
wget ${DTLS_RPM_URL} -O ${DTLS_RPM}
sudo yum install -y scl-utils ${DTLS_RPM}
sudo yum install -y devtoolset-3-toolchain
git clone https://github.com/apache/kudu
cd kudu
build-support/enable_devtoolset.sh thirdparty/build-if-necessary.sh
mkdir -p build/release
cd build/release
../../build-support/enable_devtoolset.sh \
  ../../thirdparty/installed/common/bin/cmake \
  -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=release \
  ../..
make -j4

Ubuntu or Debian

  1. Install the prerequisite libraries, if they are not installed.

    $ sudo apt-get install autoconf automake curl g++ gcc gdb git \
      krb5-admin-server krb5-kdc krb5-user libkrb5-dev libsasl2-dev libsasl2-modules \
      libsasl2-modules-gssapi-mit libssl-dev libtool lsb-release make ntp openssl \
      patch pkg-config python rsync unzip vim-common
  2. Optional: Install some additional packages, including ruby, if you plan to build documentation.

    $ sudo apt-get install doxygen gem graphviz ruby-dev xsltproc zlib1g-dev
  3. Clone the Git repository and change to the new kudu directory.

    $ git clone https://github.com/apache/kudu
    $ cd kudu
  4. Build any missing third-party requirements using the build-if-necessary.sh script.

    $ thirdparty/build-if-necessary.sh
  5. Build Kudu, using the utilities installed in the previous step. Choose a build directory for the intermediate output, which can be anywhere in your filesystem except for the kudu directory itself.

    mkdir -p build/release
    cd build/release
    ../../thirdparty/installed/common/bin/cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=release ../..
    make -j4
  6. Optional: Install Kudu binaries, libraries, and headers. If you do not specify an installation directory through the DESTDIR environment variable, /usr/local/ is the default.

    sudo make DESTDIR=/opt/kudu install
  7. Optional: Build the documentation. NOTE: This command builds local documentation that is not appropriate for uploading to the Kudu website.

    $ make docs
Example 2. Ubuntu / Debian Build Script

This script provides an overview of the procedure to build Kudu on Ubuntu, and can be used as the basis for an automated deployment scenario. It skips the steps marked Optional above.

#!/bin/bash

sudo apt-get -y install autoconf automake curl g++ gcc gdb git \
  krb5-admin-server krb5-kdc krb5-user libkrb5-dev libsasl2-dev libsasl2-modules \
  libsasl2-modules-gssapi-mit libssl-dev libtool lsb-release make ntp openssl \
  patch pkg-config python rsync unzip vim-common
git clone https://github.com/apache/kudu
cd kudu
thirdparty/build-if-necessary.sh
mkdir -p build/release
cd build/release
../../thirdparty/installed/common/bin/cmake \
  -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=release \
  ../..
make -j4

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server

  1. Install the prerequisite libraries, if they are not installed.

    $ sudo zypper install autoconf automake curl cyrus-sasl-devel \
      cyrus-sasl-gssapi gcc gcc-c++ gdb git krb5-devel libtool lsb-release make ntp \
      openssl-devel patch pkg-config python rsync unzip vim
  2. Clone the Git repository and change to the new kudu directory.

    $ git clone https://github.com/apache/kudu
    $ cd kudu
  3. Build any missing third-party requirements using the build-if-necessary.sh script.

    $ thirdparty/build-if-necessary.sh
  4. Build Kudu, using the utilities installed in the previous step. Choose a build directory for the intermediate output, which can be anywhere in your filesystem except for the kudu directory itself.

    mkdir -p build/release
    cd build/release
    ../../thirdparty/installed/common/bin/cmake \
      -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=release \
      ../..
    make -j4
  5. Optional: Install Kudu binaries, libraries, and headers. If you do not specify an installation directory through the DESTDIR environment variable, /usr/local/ is the default.

    sudo make DESTDIR=/opt/kudu install
Example 3. SLES Build Script

This script provides an overview of the procedure to build Kudu on SLES, and can be used as the basis for an automated deployment scenario. It skips the steps marked Optional above.

#!/bin/bash

sudo zypper install -y autoconf automake curl cyrus-sasl-devel \
  cyrus-sasl-gssapi gcc gcc-c++ gdb git krb5-devel libtool lsb-release make ntp \
  openssl-devel patch pkg-config python rsync unzip vim
git clone https://github.com/apache/kudu
cd kudu
thirdparty/build-if-necessary.sh
mkdir -p build/release
cd build/release
../../thirdparty/installed/common/bin/cmake \
  -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=release \
  ../..
make -j4

macOS

The Xcode package is necessary for compiling Kudu. Some of the instructions below use Homebrew to install dependencies, but manual dependency installation is possible.

macOS Known Issues

Kudu support for macOS is experimental, and should only be used for development. See macOS Limitations & Known Issues for more information.

  1. Install the prerequisite libraries, if they are not installed.

    $ brew tap homebrew/dupes
    $ brew install autoconf automake cmake git krb5 libtool openssl pkg-config pstree
  2. Optional: Install some additional packages, including ruby, if you plan to build documentation.

    $ brew install doxygen graphviz ruby
    $ brew install gnu-sed --with-default-names #The macOS default sed handles the -i parameter differently
  3. Clone the Git repository and change to the new kudu directory.

    $ git clone https://github.com/apache/kudu
    $ cd kudu
  4. Build any missing third-party requirements using the build-if-necessary.sh script.

    $ thirdparty/build-if-necessary.sh
    • If different versions of the dependencies are installed and used when calling thirdparty/build-if-necessary.sh, you may get stuck with output similar to the following:

      ./configure: line 16299: error near unexpected token `newline'
      ./configure: line 16299: `  PKG_CHECK_MODULES('

      The thirdparty builds may be cached and may reflect the incorrect versions of the dependencies. Ensure that you have the correct dependencies listed in Step 1, clean the workspace, and then try to re-build.

      $ git clean -fdx
      $ thirdparty/build-if-necessary.sh
    • Some combinations of Homebrew installations and system upgrades can result with a different kind of error:

      libtool: Version mismatch error.  This is libtool 2.4.6, but the
      libtool: definition of this LT_INIT comes from libtool 2.4.2.
      libtool: You should recreate aclocal.m4 with macros from libtool 2.4.6
      libtool: and run autoconf again.

      As described in this thread, a possible fix is to uninstall and reinstall libtool:

      $ brew uninstall libtool && brew install libtool
  5. Build Kudu. Choose a build directory for the intermediate output, which can be anywhere in your filesystem except for the kudu directory itself.

    mkdir -p build/release
    cd build/release
    ../../thirdparty/installed/common/bin/cmake \
      -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=release \
      -DOPENSSL_ROOT_DIR=/usr/local/opt/openssl \
      ../..
    make -j4
Example 4. macOS Build Script

This script provides an overview of the procedure to build Kudu on macOS, and can be used as the basis for an automated deployment scenario. It assumes Xcode and Homebrew are installed.

#!/bin/bash

brew tap homebrew/dupes
brew install autoconf automake cmake git krb5 libtool openssl pkg-config pstree
git clone https://github.com/apache/kudu
cd kudu
thirdparty/build-if-necessary.sh
mkdir -p build/release
cd build/release
../../thirdparty/installed/common/bin/cmake \
  -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=release \
  -DOPENSSL_ROOT_DIR=/usr/local/opt/openssl \
  ../..
make -j4

Installing the C++ Client Libraries

If you need access to the Kudu client libraries for development, install the kudu-client and kudu-client-devel package for your platform. See Install Using Packages.

Only build against the client libraries and headers (kudu_client.so and client.h). Other libraries and headers are internal to Kudu and have no stability guarantees.

Build the Java Client

Requirements
  • JDK 7

  • Apache Maven 3.x

  • protoc 2.6 or newer installed in your path, or built from the thirdparty/ directory. You can run the following commands to build protoc from the third-party dependencies:

$ thirdparty/download-thirdparty.sh
$ thirdparty/build-thirdparty.sh protobuf

To build the Java client, clone the Kudu Git repository, change to the java directory, and issue the following command:

$ mvn install -DskipTests

For more information about building the Java API, as well as Eclipse integration, see java/README.md.

View API Documentation

C++ API Documentation

You can view the C++ client API documentation online. Alternatively, after building Kudu from source, you can additionally build the doxygen target (e.g., run make doxygen if using make) and use the locally generated API documentation by opening docs/doxygen/client_api/html/index.html file in your favorite Web browser.

In order to build the doxygen target, it’s necessary to have doxygen with Dot (graphviz) support installed at your build machine. If you installed doxygen after building Kudu from source, you will need to run cmake again to pick up the doxygen location and generate appropriate targets.
Java API Documentation

You can view the Java API documentation online. Alternatively, after building the Java client, Java API documentation is available in java/kudu-client/target/apidocs/index.html.

Upgrade from a Previous Version of Kudu

Before upgrading, you should read the Release Notes for the version of Kudu that you are about to install. Pay close attention to the incompatibilities, upgrade, and downgrade notes that are documented there.

Additionally, during the beta period:

  • Upgrades are only supported when going from the previous latest version to the newest released version.

  • Rolling upgrades are not supported. Please shut down all Kudu services before upgrading the software.

Upgrade Procedure

  1. Stop the Kudu master and tablet server services:

    $ sudo service kudu-master stop
    $ sudo service kudu-tserver stop
  2. Upgrade the packages.

    • On RHEL or CentOS hosts:

      sudo yum clean all
      sudo yum upgrade kudu
    • On SLES hosts:

      sudo zypper clean --all
      sudo zypper update kudu
    • On Ubuntu or Debian hosts:

      sudo apt-get update
      sudo apt-get install kudu
  3. Start the Kudu master and tablet server services:

    $ sudo service kudu-master start
    $ sudo service kudu-tserver start